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Comparison Table 5: Program Administration and Authority

(last updated Jan 2011)

Read about Program Administration and Authority

Name of Program

Who administers?

Who validates/ verifies? 

Who approves?

Name of Registry

Kyoto offset mechanisms

Clean Development Mechanism

UNFCCC Sectretatiat

Designated Operational Entities (DOEs)

CDM Executive Board

CDM Registry

Joint Implementation

JI Supervisory Council

Accredited Independent Entity (AIE)
Provisionally DOEs currently serve as auditors

AIE unless a review is requested, in which case the JI Supervisory Council approves the project

Offset credits tracked in respective National Registries.

Mandatory cap-and-trade systems

Alberta-Based GHG Reduction Program

Alberta provincial government

Third-party verifier

Alberta Environment

Alberta Emissions Offset Registry

Australian Carbon Pollution Abatement Scheme

Under development

Under development

Under development

Under development

Canada’s Offset System for Greenhouse Gases

Minister of the Environment

Accredited third-party verifier

Environment Canada

Under development

European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

European Commission and National administrators

CDM and JI requirements apply

CDM and JI requirements apply

Community Independent Transaction Log (CITL) for allowances, for CERs and AIEs see above.

Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

Accord partner jurisdictions

Under development

Under development

Under development

New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme

Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal of NSW (IPART)

Approved third-party auditor in Audit and Technical Services Panel. 


NSW GGAS Registry

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

State regulatory agencies 

State-accredited independent verifier

State regulatory agencies

RGGI CO2 Allowance Tracking System (RGGI COATS)

Western Climate Initiative

WCI partner jurisdictions

Under development

Under development

Under development

Other mandatory GHG systems

State power plant rules (OR, WA, MA)

OR: Energy Facility Siting Council

OR: Program administrator

OR: Program administrator

OR: None

WA: Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council

WA: Independent entity

WA: Program administrator

WA: None

MA: Department of Environmental Protection

MA: MA Dept. of Environmental Protection

MA: MA Dept. of Environmental Protection

MA: GHG Registry

British Columbia Emission Offset Regulation

BC Ministry of Environment

Validation and Verification body (accreditation required after July 1, 2010)

Verification body

Pacific Carbon Trust

Voluntary standards (read about standards versus programs)

WBCSD/WRI GHG Protocol for Project Accounting 





ISO 14064-2





Voluntary programs

American Carbon Registry

Winrock, ACR Director

ACR approved verifiers or verifiers  approved under CDM, JI, VCS and the Climate Action Reserve.. Starting 10 2010, verifiers must be ANSI certified.  

ACR approved verifiers.

American Carbon Registry page

Carbon Fix       Carbon Fix Registry administered by Markit

Chicago Climate Exchange

CCX Committee on Offsets.

CCX-approved verifiers

CCX Committee on Offsets

Chicago Climate Exchange Registry

Climate Action Reserve

Board of Directors

ANSI-accredited independent verifiers approved by the Reserve.

State of California and the Climate Action Reserve

Climate Action Reserve administered by APX Inc.

Climate Community and Biodiversity Standards

CCB Alliance (CCBA)

DOEs or evaluators who are accredited under the Forest Stewardship Council.

Third-party auditors

CCB Standards Registry administered by Markit

Climate Leaders 

The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)


(Third-party verification encouraged)

Recommends use of independent registry, although not required.

Gold Standard

Gold Standard Foundation, GS Secretariat, Foundation Board, GS Technical Advisory Committee (GS TAC), GS NGO Supporters


GS TAC, GS Secretariat, GS NGO Supporters

Gold Standard VER Registry administered by APX Inc.

Green-e Climate Program

Center for Resources Solutions (CRS)

Green-e Governance Board/ Accredited third-party auditor

See requirements of approved standards under Green-e Climate

Required. Registry not specified

Green-e Climate Protocol for Renewable Energy

Center for Resources Solutions (CRS)

Green-e CPRE, administered by CRS

Green-e CPRE, administered by CRS

Use of electronic tracking systems for Renewable Energy Certificates is required. Registry not specified.

Panda Standard Panda Standard Board and Secretariat Independent Third Party Auditor Independent Third Party Auditor Registry under development.

Plan Vivo

Plan Vivo Foundation

Plan Vivo Foundation

Plan Vivo Foundation

Plan Vivo Registry administered by Markit

Social Carbon Methodology

Ecológica Institute (Brazil)

Certifying Entities: DOEs or auditors from full standards approved by SCM and auditors that have ‘proven experience in the validation/verification of projects […]’

Certifying Entities

Social Carbon Registry administered by Markit


TÜV SÜD certification body ‘climate and energy

CDM- and JI-accredited auditors.

CDM- and JI-accredited auditors.


Verified Carbon Standard

VCS Association

Accredited VCS auditors

Accredited VCS auditor

Launched 3/17/09 the VCS Project Database and approved registries:
- APX Inc
- Caisse des Depots
- Markit Environmental Registry